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They are generally thought to be called wisdom teeth because they appear so late—much later than the other teeth, at an age where people are presumably "wiser" than as a child, when the other teeth erupt. The English wisdom tooth is derived from Latin dens sapientiae. The same root is shared by numerous other languages. There exists a Dutch folk etymology which states that the Dutch word for wisdom tooth verstandskies is derived from "far-standing" (ver-staand) molar, and that mistranslations of the Dutch word (in which verstand translates to wisdom) are the root for corresponding words in other European languages.

Turkish refers directly to the age at which wisdom teeth appear and calls it 20 yaş dişi (20th year tooth). In Arabic, its name is Ders-al-a'qel (ضرس العقل), literally meaning "The tooth of the mind" and hence similar to occidental names. In Korean, its name is Sa-rang-nee (사랑니, love teeth) referring to the young age and the pain of the first love. In Japanese, its name is Oyashirazu (親知らず), literally meaning "unknown to the parents," from the idea that they erupt after a child has moved away. In Chinese, the term is Zhi Ya (智牙) a word for wisdom (Zhi) combined with the word for tooth (Ya). The Indonesian term gigi bungsu for the last teeth a person cuts refers to bungsu, meaning "youngest child", because the teeth erupt so much later than the others, implying that the teeth are "younger" than the rest. In Thailand, the wisdom tooth is described fan-khut (ฟันคุด) "huddling tooth" due to its shortage of space. In Persian, its name is dandan-e aghl (دندان عقل), which means "wisdom tooth". In many Spanish speaking countries, it is called the "molar of judgment" (muela de juicio). This is because when they appear, the person is considered to have a better judgment than that of a child. A similar phrase is commonly used in Italian, as the tooth is called "dente del giudizio" (judgment tooth). In Maltese the molar is called "darsa ta' l-għaqal" which is the translation of wisdom tooth. However some refer to it as "darsa ta' l-għaqad" which means "the molar that joins", possibly referring to the fact that it completes the set of molars. In Greek, it is called φρονιμίτης (phronimitēs), which means the same as with the other languages. As in many others languages the Portuguese name for the 3rd molar is related with judgment and is "dente do siso". In Hebrew, its name is shen bina (שן בינה), literally meaning "wisdom tooth". In Bulgarian it is called мъдрец which is the same as a word used for a 'wise man'. In Urdu it is called "A-qal Darh (عقل داڑھ)", which means "wisdom tooth".
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